MULBERRY BREEDING & GENETICS

 

Scientists:

v         

 

 

 

Objectives:

Mulberry Breeding & Genetics Section played an important role in evolving some high yielding mulberry varieties, the leaves of which provide the sole food source of silkworm, (Bombyx mori L) and to cater the need of the sericultural farmers from different Seri zones of Eastern and North-Eastern regions of India. 

 

Achievements:

1.    A total no. of 143 mulberry germplasm resources had been characterized and grouped into 22 clusters.

 

2.    Flowering time and sex expression in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate genotypes have been worked out their utilization in crossing programme.

 

3.    Out of the 3107 hybrids of diploid x diploid crosses, 5 hybrids having 17.06 – 25.59 % superiority in yield over the (S1635) check had been selected and 1 hybrid (VSB6) was included in I.E.T.

 

4.    C1730, a new mulberry variety giving 3% higher yield under non-irrigated condition had been evolved.

 

5.    An improved method on induction of tetraploids through in vitro was developed.

 

6.    One hexaploid, 2 pentaploids, 3 tetraploids & their respective triploids and a mixoploid had been developed.

 

7.    A total of 33 triploids had been evaluated on the basis of yield attributing characters and finally 1 triploid (VSB-2) was selected and included in Final Yield Trial (F.Y.T).

 

8.    A total of 30 tetraploids have been evaluated on 17 economic characters and ranked them for utilization in breeding programme

 

9.    From the 3375 hybrids of 4n x 2n & 2n x 4n, 6 hybrids having 73.87 – 30.34 % superiority over S1635 have been selected and included in F. Y. T. (VSB1, VSB3. VSB4, VSB5, VSB6, VSB7).

 

10.   Somaclonal variant of   SV1 has been evolved with 26 % improvement in leaf yield over S1.

 

11.   C776, – a salt tolerant variety can withstand salinity stress up to an Ec of 7.8 mhos/cm has been identified through in vitro screening followed by field study. The variety has shown 28.1 % superiority in leaf yield over S 1635.

 

12.   Embryoids and callus with haploid roots have been obtained from cultures of anther and isolated pollen.

 

13.   The best 8 hybrids from diploid and polyploid crosses have been selected.

 

14.   Among 164 mulberry germplasm accessions at this Institute, 82 accessions were evaluated based on anatomy, physio-biochemical parameters and disease & pest incidence.

 

15.   Single bud cutting, a vegetative propagation method,  was found more efficient but this method may be suitable for the Mulberry breeders particularly during multiplication of a newly evolved variety in the Institute level but it may not be feasible at farmers field because  it needs more care for maintaining  required soil moisture and temperature by making box type closed nursery.

 

16.   In vitro screening of 27 improved mulberry genotypes in the acidic environment in the sand culture with nutrient medium (Knop’s solution) in different pH ranging from 2.0 to 7.0 was conducted to identify most suitable mulberry varieties for further evaluation in acid soil.

 

17.   Mulberry Genotype RG-120 identified as highest yielder (54.97 mt/ha/year) under irrigated condition, which outyielded S-1635 (43.02 mt/ha/year) by 27.8%. The genotype is ready for AICEM Trial for Phase-III.

 

18.   Identified a genotype Tr-23, performing better than the ruling variety BC259 for hills and foot hills of West Bengal.

 

19.   In a FYT experiment, a new genotype CT-44 yielded 47.94 mt leaves /ha/year which is 17% more than the ruling variety S-1635.

 

New Varieties Evolved:

 

A.  For Gangetic Alluvial soil under irrigated condition –

 

1. S1 – This cultivar popularly called ‘Mandalaya’ is a selection from OPH seedlings of unknown mother from the place Madalay (Burma). It is commonly cultivated in the plains of west Bengal (Gangetic alluvial plain).  Leaf yield per year / ha is 27 mt.

 

2. S1635 – It is a triploid variety with high leaf yielding ability (35 MT/ha/yr.) has been evolved by the Institute. The variety has been considered as National check. It is becoming popular under assured irrigation among the sericulture farmers in Malda, Murshidabad and Birbhum districts of West Bengal. The variety has also shown its superiority in some pockets of South India also.

 

B. For Temperate hills –

 

1.    BC259 - This variety was evolved through back crossing of first filial plants of the cross of matigara (M.indica) x Kosen (M.multicaulis), with recurrent parent Kosen variety. This variety has been recommended especially for hilly regions and rain fed conditions. Leaf yields of around 20 – 21 mt / ha /year can be obtained in rain fed condition.

 

2.    Tr-4 - This mulberry variety has been evolved and popularized in the temperate hills of Kalimpong, Kurseong and Darjeeling hills of West Bengal. This variety out yielded Kosen, a Japanese mulberry variety (existing mulberry variety in temperate hills) by more than 15 %.

  

3.    Tr-10 – This variety was developed by polyploidy breeding (T4 x Mandalaya). Average leaf yield per year per ha is around 18 -19 mt.

 

4.    S-146 - The Mulberry Breeding and Genetics Section have evolved S146, a new mulberry variety suitable for temperate hills. The variety has gained popularity in J & K regions also. Leaf yield per ha per year is around 25 mt.

 

C.  For Red laterite soil under Rain fed condition –

 

1. C1730 - This variety was evolved through polyploidy breeding between T25 x S-162. In red late rite soil of drought prone area the leaf yield is 13 mt./ha /year   It has been identified as drought tolerant variety. The variety has become popular in the drought- prone like, Purulia, Bankura in West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh.

 

D.  For Coastal Saline soil –

 

1.    C-776 - It is a selection from the seedlings of controlled hybridization between M.multicaulis x Black cherry. It has been identified as a salt tolerant mulberry variety which can withstand salinity stress up to an Ec of 7.8 mhos / cm through in vitroscreening following by field study. Leaf yields of around 32 mt / ha / year can be obtainable with the recommended package of practices.

 

    Mulberry Accessions Maintained at CSR&TI, Berhampore (West Bengal)

 

Registration of newly evolved mulberry varieties:

 

      The Mulberry Registration Committee of Central Silk Board has registered 6 mulberry varieties recently.

 

1)        S1 irrigated,

2)        S1635 irrigated,

3)        S799 – irrigated,

4)        C1730, non irrigated,

5)        BC259 Temperate,

6)        Tr-10 Temperate.

 

 

RESOURCES:

 

1.    Root Growth Monitoring system, CI 600, CID-inc, USA.

2.    Portable Leaf Area meter, Model LI-3000, LI-COR, USA.

3.    Leitz Diaplan compound microscope, Germany.

4.    BOD incubator.

5.    Hot & Cold water bath, Incon.

6.    Chlorophyll Concentration Meter (Model: CCM-200)

 

ONGOING PROJECTS:

 

1. PIB-3340  :Development of Mulberry Genotypes suitable for low productive soils (2005-2010).

 

 Objective: Development of mulberry genotypes suitable for low productive soil areas.

 

2.PIB-3341  :Preliminary evaluation of newly evolved mulberry genotypes for their productivity and quality. (2004-2009).

 

 Objective: Screening of mulberry genotypes to identify higher leaf yield over the existing highest yielder (S-1635) as well as suitable to silkworms.

 

3.PIB-3365: Development of superior triploid mulberry for high productivity and quality (2006- 2011).

 

Objective: Improvement of mulberry productivity and quality by developing superior genotypes through polyploid breeding.

 

4.PIB-3422: Development of mulberry genotypes for improvement in productivity and quality (2008-2012).

 

Objective: To develop high yielding mulberry genotypes suitable for silkworms.

 

 

APPROVED NEW PROJECTS

 

1. PIB-0000: Development of cold tolerant mulberry genotypes for sub-tropical plains. (2009-2012)

 

Objective: To develop cold tolerant mulberry genotypes for increasing mulberry productivity during favourable cocoon crop seasons.

 

CONCLUDED PROJECTS:

1.    PIB-0001: Improvement of Mulberry  (1991 - 1998)                             

2.    PIE-3167: Mulberry Germplasm evaluation in relation to quality, quantity & stress resistance (1999-2004)                       

3.    PIT-3234: Studies on the multiplication of improved mulberry varieties (2002-2004)

4.    PIE-3235: Identification of Improved mulberry genotypes for acidic soils of   West Bengal(2002-2003).

5.    PIB-3192: Primary evaluation of new mulberry lines for their yield and quality (2000-2004).

6.    PIB-3191: Selection of high yielding mulberry varieties for improvement of Cocoon production in  Gangetic plains of West Bengal and similar regions (2000-2007).

7.    PIE-3221: All India Mulberry and Silkworm Germplasm Evaluation Programme (AIMSGEP)  (2001-2005).

8.    PIE-3222: All India Co-ordinated Experimental Trials for Mulberry (AICEM) -Phase-II. (2001-2005).

9.    PIB-3290: Evaluation of new mulberry genotypes for their leaf yield and quality (2003- 2007).

10. PIE-3310: Evaluation of improved mulberry genotypes for acidic soils of West Bengal(2004-2008).