Mulberry Physiology








1.       To evaluate nutritionally superior mulberry genotypes/ varieties for stress tolerant - drought and flood tolerant and selection of parent for future breeding programmes.

2.         Improvement of leaf quality through nutrient fortification by use of plant growth regulators, macronutrients and micronutrients.               



v       Superior mulberry varieties viz. Akaji, Ichinose, Sukakuchi, Egypt cairoand Kurimato viz., Sultanpur, MS-1, Tollygunj, Takada and Dudiah were screened out of 90 exotic varieties and 72 indigenous varieties through physio-biochemical characters and leaf yield.


Water logged tolerant mulberry varieties:

v       C-2028 and S-1 were identified as water logged tolerant mulberry varieties through physio-biochemical study.


v       Kinetin based PGR could restore the leaf yield by 30% and cocoon yield by 20% under water logging condition.


Drought tolerant mulberry variety:


v       C1730 was identified as a drought tolerant variety with leaf yield (13.3 mt ha-1yr-1), maximum abscisic acid content under red laterite soil.


Screening Tool:

v         Two biochemical markers(s) – abscisic acid and glutathione reductase identified as a screening tool for identification of drought tolerant variety in mulberry


Morizyme-B, a plant growth regulator:

v Foliar spray of NAA based PGR, Morizyme–B (formulated by this section) increased mulberry leaf yield by 25 – 30 %, leaf protein by 30% and sugar by 31% during winter season. Thus a farmer can earn Rs. 4670.00 /-ha-1 crop-1 by selling excess leaves or Rs.5278/- ha-1 crop1 by rearing with N x Bi hybrids with the additional leaves.

v Morizyme-B has been commercialized.


Screening of Mulberry varieties:

v      Five mulberry varieties viz. SV1, V1, RFS-175, MR-2, and JRH were evaluated at CSR &TI, Berhampore (both irrigated and rainfed), Technical Service Center, Kashipur, Purulia (W.B.), RSRS- Koraput, Ranchi, Kalimpong and Jorhat under rainfed condition on the basis of different yield attributes, physio-biochemical characters and bioassay.

v      S 1635 for CSR&TI, Berhampore (irrigated and rainfed), Ranchi, Kalimpong follwed by S146 at Kalimpong and S1 at Ranchi.

v       S-34 for Koraput followed by S-1635 

v      C-1730 for Purulia followed by RFS-175

v      JRH at Jorhat followed by S-1635 

v      RFS-175 was also identified as water stress tolerant variety showing minimum wilting coefficient (8.24%) less reduction in membrane stability and increase in glutathione reductase activity.


S-1635 identified as a best mulberry variety for chawki garden.


v    S-1635 mulberry variety also suites best for chawki:

v    Chawki leaf yield: 15.7 mt/ha/year.

v    Leaf moisture:  79.60%

v    Total soluble Protein: 25.94 mg.g–1 f.wt.

v    Total soluble sugar:  27.61 mg.g–1 f.wt.

v    Moulting %:  90.92



·   Portable photosynthesis system

·   U-Vis Spectrophotometer

·   Leaf water potential meter

·   Mettlet Moisture Analyser, DR

·   Hydroprobe Moisture Gauge

·   High and Low speed REMI Centrifuge

·   Cryocan, Lux Meter

·   PH Meter, Pocket PH Meter

·   Hot and Cold Water Bath

·   Double Glass Distillation Plant

·   Ordinary Microscope

·   Hot Air Oven and Computer.


Ongoing Projects and Programmes:

ü     PIP3356: Studies on the variability in photosynthesis and related physiological parameters of some promising mulberry genotypes for future breeding programme. (Feb, 2006 – Mar, 2009).


Objective Screening of Photosynthetically efficient mulberry genotypes for utilization in breeding programme.



Mulberry genotypes T-36, T-37, T-30 and T-33 (Tetraploids) and S-1572, S-1574, S-162 and S-1615 (Diploids) were found promising with respect to photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, Total chlorophyll, total soluble protein and leaf moisture %.


These physiologically efficient genotypes may be utilized in crop improvement programme


Experiments: 03

EO1: Screening of photosynthetically efficient mulberry genotypes for utilization in future breeding programme.

EO2: Selection of nutritionally efficient mulberry genotypes

E03: Inheritance pattern of photosynthesis and related parameters for aiding breeding programme: 

On-going Programme:

Ř      Field trial of flood tolerant mulberry variety (Feb, 2006 – Mar, 2009).

           [In collaboration with DOS West Bengal]


Objective: To confirm the tolerance capability of C-2028 variety planted in flood prone areas in natural condition at farmer’s field.



The saplings of variety C-2028, S-1 and S-1635 were planted at different farmers’ field in low-lying areas, which remain inundated during rainy season for assessment and validation of a suitable variety for water logged areas.


Concluded Projects (6):

1)      PIP 001: Nutritional studies in mulberry (1990-96)

2)      PIP002: Improvement of plant productivity through use of commercial plant growth regulator. (1990 – 1996). 

3)      PIP003: Studies on environmental stress in mulberry (1991-98).

4)      PIP004: Evaluation of improved mulberry varieties for eastern and north - eastern region of india (1997-2001)  

5)      PIP 3194: screening of improved mulberry varieties for flood tolerance (2001-2004) 

6)      PIP3284: Screening of mulberry varieties for chawki rearing (2003-2006)